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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10466/3112

Title: 甘藍及び花椰菜黒煤病菌の生態学的研究(農學)
Other Titles: Ecological Studies on Alternaria circinans Causing Leaf-spot and Browning of Cabbage and Cauliflower(Agriculture)
Authors: 逸見, 武雄
石上, 孔一
Author's alias: HEMMI, Takewo
Issue Date: 25-Feb-1954
Publisher: Naniwa University
Citation: Bulletin of the Naniwa University. Ser. B, Agriculture and natural sciences. Zoology and botany. 1954, 3, p.93-104
Abstract: 1.本論文には甘藍及び花椰菜黒煤病々原菌Alternaria circinans (BERK. et CURT.) BOLLEの2, 3生態学的研究の結果を記載した.2.本病は甘藍及び花椰菜の葉に病斑を形成するばかりでなく,後者にあっては,収穫目的の花球を侵してこれを腐敗せしめるが,被害軽微な場合でも,花球に褐色乃至灰黒色の汚染を生じ,商品価値を着るしく低下せしめる.3.本病原菌々絲の発育に対する最適温度は26℃前後であって,発育の限界高温度は36℃より僅に高く,限界低温度は10℃より低いものと推定せられる.4.本病原菌分生胞子の発芽に対する最適温度は34℃であって,発芽の限界高温度は36℃より高く,40℃より低いところにあること明かである.従って発芽の適温は菌絲発育の適温よりも遙かに高い.5.本病原菌の分生胞子は培養液中で6時間以内に発芽するものも相当にあるが,6時間以上12時間以内にその発芽率は激檜する.6.本病原菌分生胞子の発芽率は発芽用培養液の水深の増加と共に低下し,水深15mm以上のところでは,24時間後にも発芽するものを認めない.7.硫酸銅液はその濃度の増高と共に,本病原菌介生胞子の発芽抑制作用を高めたが,3回の実験結果に於て誤差の比較的少なかったのはM/100,000濃度の実験であった.8.硫酸銅溶液に対する本病原菌分生胞子の抵抗力は,その発芽の最適温度である34℃前後に於て,最も微弱である.9.硫酸銅溶液に対する本病原菌分生胞子の抵抗力は,該液をその発芽の最適水素イオン濃度であるpH4.6及びpH7.6に調節した場合に,最も微弱である.10.本病原菌の分生胞子は,菌絲発育の適温に近いところで形成せられたものが,不適温で形成せられたものよりも発芽良好であって,斯るものは硫酸銅溶液に対する抵抗力が弱い.11.本病原菌分生胞子の発芽率は供試菌培養日数の長いものほど,換言すれば熟度の高いものほど漸減する傾向がある.12.硫酸銅溶液に対する本病原菌分生胞子の抵抗力は,菌培養35日目までは,熟度の高いものほど弱いけれども,それを過ぎると,逆に熟度の高いものほど強くなる傾向であった.
1. The present paper deals with the results of the writers' investigations on Alternaria circinans (BERK, et CURT.) BOLLE, commonly causing leaf-spot of various cruciferous vegetables in the Kinki-district. 2. This fungus causes not only the leaf-spot of cabbage and cauliflower, but also the browning as well as the complete rot of the latter's heads. Because of causing the brown to grayish-black stains of their surface, the commercial value of heads falls markedly even in the case of slight injury. 3. Repeated experiments show that the fungus in culture grows at temperatures from a little higher than 36℃. to a little lower than 10℃. and the optimum temperature for the mycelial growth seems to be at approximately 26℃. 4. The optimum temperature for the conidial germination of the causal fungus is about 34℃., while the highest limit of temperature for germination seems to lie at a temperature higher than 36℃. and lower than 40℃. Above facts show clearly that the optimum temperature for the conidial germination is conspicuously higher than that for the mycelial growth in the case of this fungus. 5. There are fairly many conidia of the causal fungus which germinate within sixhours in culture-solution, but their germinability increases remarkably within six to twelve hours. 6. The conidial germinability of the causal fungus in culture-solution falls by degrees with the increase of the depth of solution. The writers were able to find none of germinating conidia even after twenty four hours in the solutions deeper than 15mm. 7. The checking power of the copper-sulphate solution for the conidial germination of the causal fungus increases with its concentrations. The concentration of the solution, which showed the relatively small error in the results of three repeated experiments, seemed to be M/100,000. 8. The resisting power of the conidia to copper sulphate is weakest at about 34℃., which was recognized in the present investigations to be the optimum temperature for the conidial germination. 9. The resisting power of the conidia to copper sulphate is weakest in the solutions showing pH 4.6 and pH 7.6, the optimum hydrogen-ion concentrations for the conidial germination. 10. The germinability of conidia of the causal fungus produced at suitable temperatures for the mycelial growth is larger than that of those produced at unsuitable temperatures. The former shows a tendency to have a weaker resisting power to copper sulphate. 11. The conidia of the causal fungus have a tendency to show lower germinability with the culture-duration, namely with the degree of ripeness. 12. The resisting power of conidia of the causal fungus to copper sulphate becomes weaker with the degree of their ripeness until the 35th day of culture. On the contrary it tends to become stronger with the degree of their ripeness after that day.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10466/3112
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